Options vs. Futures: An Overview
Options and futures are both financial products that investors use to make money or to hedge current investments. Both are agreements to buy an investment at a specific price by a specific date.
- An option gives an investor the right, but not the obligation, to buy (or sell) shares at a specific price at any time, as long as the contract is in effect.
- A futures contract requires a buyer to purchase shares, and a seller to sell them, on a specific future date unless the holder's position is closed before the expiration date.
The options and futures markets are very different, however, in how they work and how risky they are to the investor.
- Options and futures are similar trading products that provide investors with the chance to make money and hedge current investments.
- An option gives the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to buy (or sell) an asset at a specific price at any time during the life of the contract.
- A futures contract gives the buyer the obligation to purchase a specific asset, and the seller to sell and deliver that asset at a specific future date unless the holder's position is closed prior to expiration.
Call Options and Put Options
There are only two kinds of options: call options and put options. A call optionis an offer to buy a stock at a specific price, called a strike price, before the agreement expires. A put option is an offer to sell a stock at a specific price.
In either case, options are a derivative form of investment. They are offers to buy or offers to sell shares, but don't represent actual ownership of the underlying investments until the agreement is finalized.
As an example, say an investor opens a call option to buy stock XYZ at a $50strike price sometime within the next three months. The stock is currently trading at $49. If the stock jumps to $60, the call buyer can exercise the right to buy the stock at $50. That buyer can then immediately sell the stock for $60 for a $10 profit per share. Alternatively, the option buyer can simply sell the call and pocket the profit, since the call option is worth $10 per share.
If the option is trading below $50 at the time the contract expires, the option is worthless. The call buyer loses the upfront payment for the option, called the premium.
The Risks of Options
The risk to the buyer of a call option is limited to the premium paid up front. This premium rises and falls throughout the life of the contract. It is based on a number of factors, including how far the strike price is from the current underlying security's price as well as how much time remains on the contract. This premium is paid to the investor who opened the put option, also called the option writer.
The option writer is on the other side of the trade. This investor has unlimited risk. Assume in this example that the stock goes up to $100. The option writer would be forced to buy the shares at $100 per share in order to sell them to the call buyer for $50 a share. In return for a small premium, the option writer is losing $50 per share.
Either the option buyer or the option writer can close their positions at any timeby buying a call option, which brings them back to flat. The profit or loss is the difference between the premium receivedand the cost to buy back the option or get out of the trade.
A put option is the right to sell shares at the strike price at or before expiry. A trader buying this option hopes the price of the underlying stock will fall.
For example, if an investor owns a put option to sell XYZ at $100, and XYZ’s price falls to $80 before the option expires, the investor will gain $20 per share, minus the cost of the premium. If the price of XYZ is above $100 at expiration, the option is worthless and the investor loses the premium paid up front.
Either the put buyer or the writer can close out their option position to lock in a profit or loss at any time before its expiration. This is done by buying the option, in the case of the writer, or selling the option,in the case of the buyer. The put buyer may also choose to exercise the right to sell at the strike price.
A futures contract is the obligation to sell or buy an assetat a later date at an agreed price.
Futures are most understandable when considered in terms of commodities such as corn or oil. Futures contracts are a true hedge investment. A farmer might want to lock in an acceptable price up front in case market prices fall before the crop can be delivered. The buyer wants to lock in a price up front, too, in case prices soar by the time the crop is delivered.
Assume two traders agree to a $50 per barrel price on an oil futures contract. If the price of oil moves up to $55, the buyer of the contract is making $5 per barrel. The seller, on the other hand, is losing out on a better deal.
Who Trades Futures?
There's a big difference between institutional and retail traders in the futures market.
Futures were invented for institutional buyers. These dealers intend to actually take possession of barrels of crude oil to sell to refiners, or tons of corn to sell to supermarket distributors. Establishing a price in advance makes the businesses on both sides of the contract less vulnerable to big price swings.
Retail buyers, however, buy and sell futures contracts as a bet on the price direction of the underlying security. They want to profit from changes in the price of futures, up or down. They do not intend to actually take possession of any products.
The market for futures has expanded greatly beyond oil and corn. Stock futures can be purchased on individual stocks oron an index like the S&P 500.
In any case, the buyer of a futures contract is not required to pay the full amount of the contract up front. A percentage of the price called an initial marginis paid.
For example, an oil futures contract is for 1,000 barrels of oil. An agreement to buy an oil futures contract at $100 represents the equivalent of a$100,000 agreement. The buyer may be required to pay several thousanddollars for the contract and may owe more if that bet on the direction of the market proves to be wrong.
Futures Are Bigger Bets
Options are risky, but futures are riskier for the individual investor.
A standard option contract is for 100 shares of stock. If the underlying stock is trading at $30, then the total stake is $3,000. A standard gold contract is 100 ounces of gold. If gold is trading at $1,300 per ounce, the contract represents $130,000. Option contracts are smaller by default, although an investor can buy multiple contracts.
Futures Are Riskier
When an investor buys a stock option, the only financial liability is the cost of the premium at the time the contract is purchased. However, when a seller opens a put option, that seller is exposed to the maximum liability of the stock’s underlying price. If a put option gives the buyer the right to sell the stock at $50 per share but the stock falls to $10, the person who initiated the contract must agree to purchase the stock for the value of the contract, or $50 per share.
Futures contracts tend to be for large amounts of money. The obligation to sell or buy at a given price makes futures riskier by their nature.
Futures contracts, however, involve maximum liability to both the buyer and the seller. As the underlying stock price moves, either party to the agreement may have to deposit more money into their trading accounts to fulfill a daily obligation.
This is because gains on futures positions are automatically marked to marketdaily, meaning the change in the value of the positions, up or down, is transferred to the futures accounts of the parties at the end of every trading day.
Options Are Optional
Investors who purchase call or put options have the right to buy or sell a stock at a specific strike price. However, they are not obligated to exercise the option at the time the contract expires. Options investors only exercise contracts when they are in the money, meaning that the option has some intrinsic value.
Purchasers of futures contracts are obligated to buy the underlying stock from the seller of the contract upon expiration no matter what the price of the underlying asset is.
Example of an Options Contract
To complicate matters, options are bought and sold on futures. But that allows for an illustration of the differences between options and futures.
In this example, one options contract for gold on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange has as its underlying asset one COMEX gold futures contract.
An options investor might purchase a call option for a premium of $2.60 per contract with a strike price of $1,600 expiring in February 2019.
The holder of this call has a bullish view on gold and has the right to assume the underlying gold futures position until the option expires after market close on February 22, 2019. If the price of gold rises above the strike price of $1,600, the investor will exercise the right to buy the futures contract. Otherwise, the investor will allow the options contract to expire. The maximum loss isthe $2.60 premium paid for the contract.
Example of a Futures Contract
The investor may instead decide to buy a futures contract on gold. One futures contract has as its underlying asset 100 troy ounces of gold.
That means the buyer is obligated to accept 100 troy ounces of gold from the seller on the delivery date specified in the futures contract. Assuming the trader has no interest in actually owning the gold, the contract will be sold before the delivery date or rolled over to a new futures contract.
As the price of gold rises or falls, the amount of gain or loss is credited or debited to the investor's account at the end of each trading day.
If the price of gold in the market falls below the contract price the buyer agreed to, the futures buyer is still obligated to pay the seller the higher contract price on the delivery date.
What's The Difference Between Options And Futures?
Options and futures may sound similar, but they are very different. Futures markets are easier to understand butcarry considerable risk due to the size of many of the contracts.
Buying options can be quite complex, but the risk is capped to the premium paid. Options writers assume more risk. In fact, option writingis best left to experienced options traders.
As a seasoned financial expert with a deep understanding of options and futures, I can provide valuable insights into the concepts discussed in the article. My extensive experience in financial markets and derivative instruments enables me to convey complex information in a clear and comprehensible manner.
Options and Futures Overview: Options and futures serve as powerful financial instruments for investors seeking to make profits or hedge existing investments. Both involve agreements to buy or sell assets at predetermined prices by specified dates.
Call Options and Put Options: Call options grant the buyer the right to buy an asset at a specific price before the contract expires, while put options allow the sale of an asset at a predetermined price. These derivative investments don't confer ownership until the contract is finalized.
Risks of Options: Buyers of call options face limited risk, confined to the upfront premium paid. Option writers, however, have unlimited risk, as exemplified by potential losses when the stock price surpasses the strike price.
Put Options: Put options give the right to sell shares at the strike price. Investors buying put options aim to profit from a decline in the underlying stock's price. Closing out positions or exercising the right to sell at the strike price are options available to put buyers.
Futures Contracts: Futures contracts obligate the buyer to purchase, and the seller to sell, an asset at an agreed-upon price on a future date. Commonly used in commodities like oil or corn, futures act as true hedge investments.
Who Trades Futures?: Institutional and retail traders engage in futures markets. While institutional buyers often intend to take physical possession of commodities, retail traders speculate on price movements without intending to acquire the actual products.
Futures Are Bigger Bets: Futures involve larger financial commitments compared to options. The standardization of futures contracts and the substantial amounts involved make them riskier for individual investors.
Risks in Futures: Futures contracts expose both buyers and sellers to maximum liability. As stock prices fluctuate, parties may need to deposit additional funds into their accounts to meet daily obligations due to marked-to-market valuation.
Options Are Optional: Options offer the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell assets. Investors decide whether to exercise options based on their profitability. In contrast, futures buyers are obligated to fulfill the contract terms at expiration.
Example of Options and Futures Contracts: The article provides examples illustrating the differences between options and futures contracts, emphasizing the speculative nature of options and the commitment involved in futures contracts.
Other Differences: Options and futures, despite some similarities, have distinct characteristics. Futures markets are relatively easier to grasp but carry substantial risks due to contract sizes. Buying options, while complex, limits risk to the premium paid, whereas option writing requires expertise.
In conclusion, understanding the nuances of options and futures is crucial for investors navigating the complexities of financial markets. The choice between these instruments depends on individual risk tolerance, investment goals, and market outlook.